India and China are developing at a very fast rate and these two countries used to have good relations earlier that can be noted from the years of mid 1950s when the slogan “Hindi Chini bhai bhai” was used by Nehru. Although the two countries were way different in terms of their ideologies as India was a new democracy whereas China a communist country, but they came together. The relation between the countries became bitter due to various border disputes that are yet to be solved.
There are 2 major border disputes that are going on between India and China.
First is the dispute in the western sector of Aksai Chin region. In this region India claims land on the basis of Johnson line of 1865 whereas China accepted to the Macdonald line till 1959 after which it asked for renegotiation of border which led to the rise of border dispute between the two regions. China in the year 1962 defeated the ill equipped troops of India to take over much of the Aksai Chin region.
The second dispute is in the eastern sector of Arunanchal Pradesh region. Here India claims land on the basis of Macmohan line and China claims that Macmohan line is not the real boundary.
How did the disputes begin ?
Earlier there was no proper demarcation of borders but when India came in control of the Britishers, they made certain agreements and proper demarcation of boundaries was done. This included the Shimla convention where the Macmohan line was drawn between British India and Tibet. Later when People’s Republic of China came into power, it gave up all the border settlements asking for renegotiation of borders.
Areas of Interest
In the Western Sector China is interested in the Aksai Chin region to have a direct connectivity of China’s Xinjiang region to Tibetan region and if this region comes under occupation of India then it would lead to break linkage between the China and Tibetan region.
The eastern sector is of huge importance due to Hydro-electric power and is also of spiritual importance as it is linked with the Tibetan culture.
Various talks and discussions have taken place between the 2 countries to resolve the border disputes in order to have better relations. Some of the proposals were:
China proposed to India that it would accept the Macmohan line if India gives the Aksai Chin region to China. Later China proposed that if India gives the Aksai Chin region as well as the Tawang region to China then it would think of some negotiations in the eastern sector. This proposal was made by China due to the decreasing importance of Aksai Chin region as China had built good infrastructure in the Xinjiang region also it did want India to have the spiritual advantage of the Tawang area. At present former Chinese governor has said that if India wants to resolve the border dispute then they have to cede Tawang region.
According to me, the two countries would again have good relations and a better say in world affairs if the disputes between them are resolved as they can’t have good relations until and unless they come to certain conclusion over the border disputes that are acting as negative catalysts for the development of the two countries.